The Community of Inquiry Framework was primarily focussed on developing effective learning through facilitating and supporting social, cognitive and teaching presence in an online learning environment. However, it is recognised as having real relevance when applied to an on-campus learning environment as well. Garrison and Anderson (2003) are acknowledged as the architects of this framework although their work draws on research that predates this seminal text.
The framework represents three critical and interdependent elements – social, cognitive and teaching presence – which work together to create meaningful learning experiences in the online and on-campus environment. These three presences are co-dependent. Each of these elements is illustrated below.
The social presence element in the online environment is characterised by learners’ self-disclosure, expressing agreement, referring to individuals by name and/or asking questions. The level of social presence influences the amount of interactivity within a unit. Effective social presence might begin with simple introductions followed by the establishment of shared interests, but it must shift over time to focus collectively around the common goal or issue being explored.
The cognitive presence element is characterised by a cycle of practical inquiry where learners are moving from understanding and clarifying a problem or issue at hand through to exploration, integration and application to a presented task. This element is partly an outcome of social presence, but it primarily depends on the effectiveness of teaching presence. The teacher must design tasks that enable learners’ interaction to be purposeful, systematic and focused on learners moving through the important stages of problem-solving if meaningful learning and understanding are to occur.
The teaching presence element is responsible for the design and organisation of the learning environment and the facilitation of the discussion. A teacher’s direct interventions in the online environment may offer additional sources of information, diagnose misconceptions and interject as required. Teaching presence is focused on supporting effective and efficient learning experiences. It is the most critical element of the CoI framework and demands the skills of the teacher with discipline knowledge and the teacher-as-facilitator.
The table below shows examples of social, cognitive and teaching presence in the online environment.
References and further resources
Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century. A framework for research and practice. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Community of Inquiry website - https://coi.athabascau.ca/